Space bar not working in form fields

I am using a template to build a one page portfolio site. The contact form is acting very strange. I cannot enter space in any of the contact fields.

I’m using the following jQuery plugins:

  • Gallerific
  • PikaChoose
  • Fancybox

When you focus in on the message field, it does not allow you to use any spaces. Any ideas on why the spacebar doesn’t work?


jquery.gallerific.js implements a page-wide keydown handler that captures the spacebar and stops it from functioning.

934 if (this.enableKeyboardNavigation) {
935  $(document).keydown(function(e) {
936   var key = e.charCode ? e.charCode : e.keyCode ? e.keyCode : 0;
937   switch(key) {
938    case 32: // space
940     e.preventDefault();
941     break;

If you scroll back to the gallery portion of the document while still focusing the form, you will notice that pressing the spacebar progresses to the next image.


java byte data type

In Sun’ tutorial it says about a byte:

byte: The byte data type is an 8-bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of -128 and a maximum value of 127 (inclusive). The byte data type can be useful for saving memory in large arrays, where the memory savings actually matters. They can also be used in place of int where their limits help to clarify your code; the fact that a variable’s range is limited can serve as a form of documentation.

How does it save memory? What is 2’s compliment?


It saves memory by consuming only eight bits of storage, versus 32 for integers. The size of arrays is directly proportional to the size of the contained datatype; an array of integers will consume about four times more memory (handwaves) than an array of bytes.

From Wikipedia:

A two’s-complement system or
two’s-complement arithmetic is a
system in which negative numbers are
represented by the two’s complement of
the absolute value;1 this system is
the most common method of representing
signed integers on computers.[2] In
such a system, a number is negated
(converted from positive to negative
or vice versa) by computing its two’s
complement. An N-bit two’s-complement
numeral system can represent every
integer in the range −2^(N−1) to


ResultSet to Pagination

How do I convert Resultset object to a paginated view on a JSP?

For example, this is my query and result set:

pst = con.prepareStatement("select userName, job, place from contact");
rs = pst.executeQuery();


To start, you need to add one or two extra request parameters to the JSP: firstrow and (optionally) rowcount. The rowcount can also be left away and definied entirely in the server side.

Then add a bunch of paging buttons to the JSP: the next button should instruct the Servlet to increment the value of firstrow with the value of rowcount. The previous button should obviously decrement the value of firstrow with the value of rowcount. Don’t forget to handle negative values and overflows correctly! You can do it with help of SELECT count(id).

Then fire a specific SQL query to retrieve a sublist of the results. The exact SQL syntax however depends on the DB used. In MySQL and PostgreSQL it is easy with LIMIT and OFFSET clauses:

private static final String SQL_SUBLIST = "SELECT id, username, job, place FROM"
    + " contact ORDER BY id LIMIT %d OFFSET %d";

public List<Contact> list(int firstrow, int rowcount) {
    String sql = String.format(SQL_SUBLIST, firstrow, rowcount);

    // Implement JDBC.
    return contacts;

In Oracle you need a subquery with rownum clause which should look like:

private static final String SQL_SUBLIST = "SELECT id, username, job, place FROM"
    + " (SELECT id, username, job, place FROM contact ORDER BY id)"

public List<Contact> list(int firstrow, int rowcount) {
    String sql = String.format(SQL_SUBLIST, firstrow, firstrow + rowcount);

    // Implement JDBC.
    return contacts;

In DB2 you need the OLAP function row_number() for this:

private static final String SQL_SUBLIST = "SELECT id, username, job, place FROM"
    + " (SELECT row_number() OVER (ORDER BY id) AS row, id, username, job, place"
    + " FROM contact) AS temp WHERE row BETWEEN %d AND %d";

public List<Contact> list(int firstrow, int rowcount) {
    String sql = String.format(SQL_SUBLIST, firstrow, firstrow + rowcount);

    // Implement JDBC.
    return contacts;

I don’t do MSSQL, but it’s syntactically similar to DB2. Also see this topic.

Finally just present the sublist in the JSP page the usual way with JSTL c:forEach.

    <c:forEach items="${contacts}" var="contact">
<form action="yourservlet" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="firstrow" value="${firstrow}">
    <input type="hidden" name="rowcount" value="${rowcount}">
    <input type="submit" name="page" value="next">
    <input type="submit" name="page" value="previous">

Note that some may suggest that you need to SELECT the entire table and save the List<Contact> in the session scope and make use of List#subList() to paginate. But this is far from memory-efficient with thousands rows and multiple concurrent users.

For ones who are interested in similar answer in JSF/MySQL context using h:dataTable component, you may find this article useful. It also contains some useful language-agnostic maths to get the “Google-like” pagination nicely to work.


What is the difference between call and apply?

What is the difference between using Function.prototype.apply() and to invoke a function?

var func = function() {

func.apply(); vs;

Are there performance differences between the two aforementioned methods? When is it best to use call over apply and vice versa?


The difference is that apply lets you invoke the function with arguments as an array; call requires the parameters be listed explicitly. A useful mnemonic is A for array and C for comma.”

See MDN’s documentation on apply and call.

Pseudo syntax:

theFunction.apply(valueForThis, arrayOfArgs), arg1, arg2, ...)

There is also, as of ES6, the possibility to spread the array for use with the call function, you can see the compatibilities here.

Sample code:

function theFunction(name, profession) {
    console.log("My name is " + name + " and I am a " + profession +".");
theFunction("John", "fireman");
theFunction.apply(undefined, ["Susan", "school teacher"]);, "Claude", "mathematician");, ...["Matthew", "physicist"]); // used with the spread operator

When should I create a new Exception class

I notice that a number of Java exception classes differ only in the name of the class and do not add any new functionality. Most exceptions for example just seem to override Exception() or Exception(String message). This goes against the tenets of inheritance ie:- inherit to add new functionality.

What are some good reasons to create a new Exception class?


Exceptions are a special case. In their case, the inheritance is not to add new functionality, but to add new classes of errors. This lets your code catch particular kinds of errors while ignoring others.

Say you are writing a large project. You have a Data component, and you have a Display component. They can both fail in various ways, and you want to throw exceptions for these failures. The Display component doesn’t care about exceptions arising from the Data component, though, and vice versa. If all the classes just threw Exception, there’d be no way to figure out where the exception came from. However, if you subclass Exception with DataException and GraphicsException, even though they don’t add new functionality, you can now throw and catch those particular types of exceptions, i.e. a graphics component can catch GraphicsException and not have to deal with data exceptions.

Source: stackoverflow
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